A Critical Appraisal of Neurotherapy for Attention-Deficit Disorders
John P. Kline - Department of Psychology, Florida State University
Corinne N. Brann - Department of Psychology, Florida State University
Bryan R. Loney - Department of Psychology, Florida State University
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to John P. Kline, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1051; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Neurotherapy is a biofeedback technique that has been promulgated as a promising alternative therapy for diverse conditions including attention-deficit disorders. The general rationale derives from operant conditioning of electroencephalographic activity in order to correct neural processing deficits that are ostensibly related to impaired attentional processes. Here we critically review the status of neurotherapy as a treatment for attention-deficit disorders (ADD and ADHD). Though it has been touted as a promising technique for decades, it is predicated on questionable premises regarding outcome assessment, as well as regarding the neural underpinnings of ADD and ADHD. Furthermore, evidence for the efficacy of this technique is lacking, and its proponents rely largely on uncontrolled case reports to support its continued use. The extant literature does not provide adequate support for the growing promotion and use of such techniques.